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The total land area of Tianjin is 11,916.9 square kilometers, consisting of mainly plains and lowlands. Constructional plain accounts for 93% of the total area of Tianjin. Lying at the transition zone between the northern Yanshan Mountains and the coastal plain, its altitude gradually decreases from the north to the south. The average altitude in the north is 1,052m, the highest point being the 1,078.5m Jiushanding in Jizhou District; the southeast coastal part, with an average altitude of no more than 3.5m, is the lowest point in the North China Plain.
With a geological history as long as 2 billion years, the Tianjin area gradually took shape while the sea retreated from the land. The long yet slow geological evolution gave rise to the unique geographical structure and landscapes of Tianjin, with mountains, rivers, lakes, seas, springs and wetlands. The northern mountainous area of Jizhou District in Tianjin has a unique palaeogeographic environment, with various types of valuable geological relics widely distributed. Tianjin National Geopark of Jizhou District, the first national geological park in China, is the only one in China that demonstrates the geologic evolution of the earth in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic. The 72-kilometer-long Haihe River winds its way through the city and flows into the Bohai Sea, instilling vitality to the entire city.
Weather and climate
Tianjin has a sub-humid continental monsoon climate. The four seasons are very distinct. In spring, it is dry, windy, with fluctuating temperatures. In summer, the subtropical high in the Northwest Pacific often brings southerly wind, as well as high temperatures and humidity, accompanied with rain. In autumn, the sky is usually clear, bright and sunny. In winter, controlled by the Mongolian cold front, Tianjin receives northwesterly winds, which brings cold and dry weather.
The annual precipitation is 566 mm, about 85 percent of which is concentrated in summer and autumn. The average annual sunshine duration is 2,471—2,769 hours. The average wind speed is 2.3 m/s. The average temperature in Tianjin is 11.4°C—12.9°C. In January, the coldest month, the average temperature is -5.4°C—-3.0°C, while in July, the hottest month, the average temperature is 25.9°C—26.7°C.
Spring, from March to May, is windy and rainless. Temperature changes constantly and will dramatically increase after April.
Summer, from June to August, is hot, humid and sunny. People often refer to Tianjin's muggy days as 'sauna day'.
Autumn, from September to November, is generally warm and comfortable yet at night it can be slightly cold.
Winter, from December to February, is chilly and dry. It could be snowy and temperatures can be as low as -10.0°C—-20.0°C during a windy day.
Tianjin enjoys a rich supply of natural resources including soil, petroleum, gas, sea salt, minerals and geothermal resources.
Soil resources: Tianjin 7,169.9 square kilometers of land for agricultural use, accounting for 60.2 percent of the total land area of Tianjin, 4,497.3 square kilometers is arable land. In Tianjin Binhai New Area, there is about 1,200 square kilometers of fertile land and mudflats.
Oil and gas resources: Bohai and Dagang Oilfield are key oil and gas fields in China, with a proven reserve of 4 billion tons of petroleum. The oil fields cover an area of more than 100 square kilometers and their annual output of natural crude oil reached 33.3273 million tons in 2010.The proven geological reserves of natural gas is more than 150 billion cubic meters. In 2010, the annual output of natural gas reached 1.719 billion cubic meters.
Sea salt resources: Changlu Salt Field, the most famous sea salt production base in China, is located in Tianjin. In 2010, this salt field turned around 2.076 million tons of crude salt.
Minerals resources: There are over 20 kinds of metallic minerals, including jimboite, manganese, gold, tungsten, molybdenum, copper, zinc, iron, etc. Non-metallic minerals include cement limestone, barite, stacked stone, marble, natural stone, purple clay, medical stone, etc. They all have high exploitation values.
Geothermal Resources: Ten zones with geothermal resources have been discovered, with a total area of 2,434 square kilometers; the water temperature ranges from 30°C—90°C.
Demography and ethnicity
At the end of 2017, the population in Tianjin totaled 15.57 million.
Tianjin gathers people with diverse ethnic background. There are 50 out of total 56 different nationalities in Tianjin, among which Han is the nationality that has the largest population accounting for 97 percent of Tianjin's entire population. Approximately 300,000 residents belong to the other 49 minority groups. Hui has the largest population accounting for 65 percent of the total population of the 49 minority groups. Other minority groups that have population over 1,000 are Manchu, Mongol, Korean, Zhuang, Tujia, Miao, and Zang.
Minority groups started to settle in Tianjin as early as the Yuan Dynasty and stayed through the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty to the present day. After People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, especially after the reform and opening up along with the rapid economic development, an increasing number of people from minority groups have come to Tianjin seeking business, employment, and education opportunities. People with different ethnic backgrounds live in Tianjin harmoniously with the government respecting customs of minority groups, securing their legal rights, developing their economy, promoting their cultures, and providing equal education for them. e. Administrative Districts
Tianjin makes up of 13 districts and counties.
Central districts: Heping District, Hedong District, Hexi District, Nankai District, Hebei District, and Hongqiao District;
Other districts: Tianjin Binhai New Area, Dongli District, Xiqing District, Jinnan District, Beichen District, Wuqing District, and Baodi District;
Counties: Ninghe County, Jinghai County, and Ji County.
Friendship cities/Sister cities
Tianjin is among the premier group of cities that started international sister cities exchanges. It has established friendly relationship with 87 local governments from 48 countries across the world. Now, it has 27 sister cities in 20 countries, while it maintains friendly exchanges and cooperation relationship with 31 cities in 22 countries and has reached memorandum of understanding (MoU) with 29 cities in 24 countries.
In September 2017, 8 delegates from Quebec, Canada, led by the province's energy and natural resources minister, visited Tianjin. The visit helped the two sides to enhance their exchanges and cooperation in a pragmatic way. At present, Quebec is one of the Canadian provinces that closely associate with Tianjin, and the latter attaches great importance to developing its relation with Quebec and is actively promoting a friendly relationship. Quebec and Tianjin have in-depth cooperation in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and trade, culture to education, and all reached positive results. In November 2017, a delegation of 22 people from Akita prefecture, Japan, visited Tianjin and shared their views on friendly exchanges and cooperation, and reached a MoU on tourism with Tianjin. In the same month, Tianjin welcomed a delegation from its first sister state in the United States, Oregon state. The two sides signed a MoU that aims to promote inter-city pragmatic cooperation. Moreover, the delegates attended the opening ceremony of Oregon pavilion in an expo of Tianjin's sister cities' products.
Putonghua or Mandarin is the official language in Tianjin.
Tianjin is an open city where various religions coexist. At the moment, there are about 430,000 religious followers of Catholicism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Taoism, of which 260 are clergies.
Major places to practice religions:
Name of Religion
Name of the Place
Dushan Rd, Heping District
No.62,Shanxi Rd, Heping District
No.3,East Longwangmiao Ave, Hongqiao District
No.8,Dafeng Rd, Hongqiao District
No.43,Xining Rd, Heping District
Monastery of Deep Compassion
Monastery of Guajiachan
No.1,Xinweidi St, Hexi District
Monastery of Jianfu Guanyin
Intersection ofTianjin-Tanggu HighwayandDazhiguzhong Rd, Hedong Dsitrict
Monastery of Fengshanyaowang
WangVillage,DasiTown, Xiqing District
Monastery of Tiancheng
Mount Pan Resort, Ji County
No.80,Ancient Culture St, Nankai District
No.18, Hejia Hutong,Ruyi'an Ave, Hongqiao Disrict
Yuhuangge Ave, Nankai District